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Biblical Languages: Guide Home

   

Source Text

Unless otherwise directed by your professor, use the standard academic text for your translation work. Consult the document below.

 

Layout

There is no single correct way to present your translated text and it is best to consult with your professor. Presenting your translation in a column parallel to the original language can make it convenient for comparison and evaluation. The easiest way to do this is to create a table with three columns, with the source text in the first column, the verse number in the middle column, and your translation in the right column. Use the Template for SBL Style to help get started.

If you need to make notations, use letters to refer to the original language and numbers for your English translation. See the two examples below.

Example 1

Example 2

Overview

Textual criticism is a specialized discipline in biblical studies. If you have the ability, it can be a helpful exercise to address the text-critical issues that appear in the academic edition of your text. Consult with your professor before proceeding.

 

Hebrew

You will need to indicate any omissions and added/replaced words or letters in your text.

  • Use square brackets [ ] to indicate omissions
  • Use angled brackets < > to indicate added/replaced words or letters
  • For example:

 

 

 

In this case the word in brackets replaced the one printed in the text of BHS. An alphabetical footnote system is used to eliminate confusion with verse numbers. See also the Template for SBL Style for further illustrations of how to format text-critical notes on your text.

 

Greek

As with Hebrew, you will need to indicate any omissions and added/replaced words or letters in your text.

  • Use square brackets [ ] to indicate added/replaced words to teh eclectic text, and include a footnote using numbers
  • Footnote any omissions from the eclectic text

 

 

This is an example where the text in brackets has been added to the main printed text of NA28. See also the Template for SBL Style for further illustrations of how to format text-critical notes on your text.

Windows Operating System

In order to type in Hebrew, you will need to install the proper Hebrew keyboard driver, in addition to using an appropriate font. Follow these instructions to conform to the standards adopted by NCU. Scroll down for instructions on Macs (OSX).

Hebrew Keyboard Driver

The keyboard driver tells the computer which Hebrew letter to display when a given key is pressed on the keyboard. For example, one driver might display an 'alep when you press the "a" key, while another will display an a-class vowel.

The driver you need to install uses the "SIL Layout" and can be found on the Society for Biblical Literature website. Be sure to select the keyboard driver for Windows that uses the SIL Layout. NOTE: Do not download the font.

​Once the file is downloaded, extract the file and install it on your computer.

  1. Navigate to your "Downloads" folder and locate the zip file (BiblicalHebrewSIL.zip)
  2. Right-click on the file and select "Extract All..."
  3. Click on the "Extract" button on the box that pops up
  4. In the newly created folder ("BiblicalHebrewSIL"), open the file called "setup" (if necessary, give permission to make changes to your computer)
  5. The installation should now be complete.

In order to switch to the Hebrew keyboard, you can change the language input on the task bar (see image below).

 

Font

The standard font adopted by NCU for typing in Hebrew is Times New Roman. In order to ensure that this is selected please follow these steps:

  1. Open a new Word document
  2. Open the pop-out Font window
  3. Set the Latin text to Times New Roman, Regular, 12-point
  4. Set the Complex Scripts to Times New Roman, Regular, 12-point
  5. Click on "Set as Default" in the lower left corner
  6. Make sure the default will apply to all documents based on the normal template.

Congratulations! You are ready to type in Hebrew.

 

Mac Operating System (OSX)

In order to type in Hebrew, you will need to install the proper Hebrew keyboard driver, in addition to using an appropriate font. Follow these instructions to conform to the standards adopted by NCU.

Hebrew Keyboard Driver

The keyboard driver tells the computer which Hebrew letter to display when a given key is pressed on the keyboard. For example, one driver might display an 'alep when you press the "a" key, while another will display an a-class vowel.

The driver you need to install uses the "SIL Layout" and can be found on the Society for Biblical Literature website. Be sure to select the keyboard driver for OSX, which will include the SIL and Tiro layouts. NOTE: Do not download the font.

​After the Downloads window pops up, open the Biblical Hebrew Keyboards Installer." Follow the prompts given by the installer. Next you will need to follow these steps to begin typing in Hebrew.

  1. Go to Apple > System Preferences > Language and Text (or access from the Dock)
  2. Click on "Input Sources" near the top
  3. Select "Biblical Hebrew - SIL" (NOTE: do not select "Biblical Hebrew - Tiro")
  4. Close System Preferences

In order to switch to the Hebrew keyboard, you can change the language input by clicking on the country flag located on the menu bar.

Word Processor

Versions of Microsoft Word prior to the 2016 release do not offer support for right-to-left (complex) languages. For this reason, it is highly recommended that you use the 2016 release of Microsoft Word, or select another word processor. The two other main options are Pages and Mellel. Pages can be purchased through the App Store. Mellel is a very powerful and well supported processor, and is generally favored by graduate students working in the Hebrew Bible. Both of these options can save documents in Microsoft Word format and thus be used for submitting assignments electronically.

Font

The standard font adopted by NCU for typing in Hebrew is Times New Roman. In order to ensure that this is selected please set your default font for both English and Hebrew to Times New Roman (12-point).

Congratulations! You are ready to type in Hebrew.

Windows Operating System

In order to type in Greek, you will need to install the proper Greek keyboard driver, in addition to using an appropriate font. Follow these instructions to conform to the standards adopted by NCU. Scroll down for instructions on Macs (OSX).

Greek Keyboard Driver

The keyboard driver tells the computer which Greek letter to display when a given key is pressed on the keyboard. The driver you need to install is the "Greek Polytonic" keyboard. In order to install it, please follow these steps:

  1. Go to Control Panel > Language
  2. Click on "Add a Language"
  3. Select "Greek" from the list, and click "Add"
  4. Click on "Options" to the right of the Greek keyboard
  5. Under "Input Method," click on "Add an input method"
  6. Select "Greek Polytonic" from the list, and click "Add"
  7. Remove the regular "Greek" keyboard, so only the "Greek Polytonic" is remaining
  8. Click on "Save"

In order to switch to the Greek keyboard, you can change the language input on the task bar (see image below.

Font

The standard font adopted by NCU for typing in Greek is Times New Roman. Follow these steps to ensure this is properly set up:

  1. Open a new Word document
  2. Open the pop-out Font window
  3. Set the Font to Times New Roman, Regular, 12-point
  4. Click on "Set As Default" in the lower left corner
  5. Make sure the default will apply to all documents based on the normal template.

Congratulations! You are ready to type in Greek.

 

Mac Operating System (OSX)

In order to type in Greek, you will need to install the proper Greek keyboard driver, in addition to using an appropriate font. Follow these instructions to conform to the standards adopted by NCU.

Greek Keyboard Driver

The keyboard driver tells the computer which Greek letter to display when a given key is pressed on the keyboard. The driver you need to install is the "Greek Polytonic" keyboard. In order to install it, please follow these steps:

  1. Go to Apple > System Preferences > Language and Text
  2. Click on "Input Sources" near the top
  3. Select "Greek Polytonic" from the list
  4. Close System Preferences

In order to switch to the Greek keyboard, you can change the language input by clicking the flag located on the menu bar (see image below).

Font

The standard font adopted by NCU for typing in Greek is Times New Roman. In order to ensure that this is selected please set Times New Roman (12-point) as the default font.

Congratulations! You are ready to type in Greek.

Biblical Fonts Help

Use this link from SBL to get Biblical Fonts

Hebrew Keyboard Map

Consult the document listed below for an easy reference to the Biblical Hebrew (SIL) keyboard map.

 

Greek Keyboard Map

Consult the document listed below for an easy reference to the Polytonic Greek keyboard map.

Quicklinks

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